Improved thermoelectric behavior of nanotube-filled polymer composites with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrene sulfonate)
The thermoelectric properties of carbon nanotube (CNT)-filled polymer composites can be enhanced by modifying junctions between CNTs using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), yielding high electrical conductivities (up to40000 S/m) without significantly altering thermopower (or Seebeck coefficient). This is because PEDOT:PSS particles are decorated on the surface of CNTs, electrically connecting junctions between CNTs. On the other hand, thermal transport remains comparable to typical polymeric materials due to the dissimilar bonding and vibrational spectra between CNT and PEDOT:PSS. This behavior is very different from that of typical semiconductors whose thermoelectric properties are strongly correlated. The decoupled thermoelectric properties, which is ideal for developing better thermoelectric materials, are believed to be due to thermally disconnected and electrically connected contact junctions between CNTs.
Carrier transport at the junction is found to be strongly dependent on the type and concentration of stabilizers. The crucial role of stabilizers was revealed by characterizing transport characteristics of composites synthesized by
electrically conducting PEDOT:PSS and insulating gum Arabic (GA) with 1:11:4 weight ratios of CNT to stabilizers. The influence of composite synthesis temperature and CNT-type and concentration on thermoelectric properties has also been studied. Single-walled (SW) CNT-filled composites dried at room temperature followed by 80 °C exhibited the best thermoelectric performance in this study. The highest thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) in this study is estimated to be0.02 at room temperature, which is at least one order of magnitude higher than most polymers and higher than that of bulk Si. Further studies with various polymers and nanoparticles with high thermoelectric performance may result in economical, lightweight, and efficient polymer thermoelectric materials.
Kim, D; Kim, YS; Choi, K; Grunlan, JC;Yu, C; ACS Nano, 2010, 4 (1), 513-523.