Layer-by-Layer Deposition: A Promising Environmentally Benign Flame-Retardant Treatment for Cotton, Polyester, Polyamide and Blended Textiles

A detailed review of recent developments of layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition as a promising approach to reduce flammability of the most widely used fibers (cotton, polyester, polyamide and their blends) is presented. LbL deposition is an emerging green technology, showing numerous advantages over current commercially available finishing processes due to the use of water as a solvent for a variety of active substances. For flame-retardant (FR) purposes, different ingredients are able to build oppositely charged layers at very low concentrations in water (e.g., small organic molecules and macromolecules from renewable sources, inorganic compounds, metallic or oxide colloids, etc.). Since the layers on a textile substrate are bonded with pH and ion-sensitive electrostatic forces, the greatest technological drawback of LbL deposition for FR finishing is its non-resistance to washing cycles. Several possibilities of laundering durability improvements by different pre-treatments, as well as post-treatments to form covalent bonds between the layers, are presented in this review.

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E. Magovac, B. Vončina, I. Jordanov, J. C. Grunlan, S. Bischof, Materials2022, 15, 2, 432.